There is no common accepted definition of a “gang”. The term “street gang” is often used as gangs commonly have a street presence.

The following features are commonly used for identifying groups of young people as being gangs:

  • The group has three or more members, generally aged 12–24.
  • The group is involved in an elevated level of criminal activity, commonly involving drugs.
  • Members share a group identity commonly linked to a name, other common symbols or tags.
  • Members see themselves as a gang and they are recognised by others in the community as a gang.
  • The group has some permanence and a degree of structure.

It can be common for groups of children and young people to gather together in public places to socialise. Although some peer groups getting together can lead to increased antisocial behaviour and and low level youth crime, these activities should not be confused with the serious violence of a street gang.

Young people can join gangs for a number of reasons which can include:

  • Getting recognition from others that they feel may be missing in their family or friend circle.
  • The thrill and excitement they believe gang lifestyle offers.
  • Gangs can seem like second families where young people meet new friends/contacts, with a shared sense of belonging.
  • To gain respect or to exercise power or control over other people- especially if they have no control or reach in their close circle of friends or family.
  • To make money from crime, notwithstanding the risk of being harmed, caught and punished.
  • To establish territory – many gangs operate by providing coverage of a particular estate or postcode. Many of the injuries and deaths of young people that we see on the media are caused by gangs clashing over territorial disputes.

Many of these factors are mistakenly held and the reality of gang life differs a lot from the myth.

The following signs may suggest that a young person you know may be involved in gang activity. The more factors that are present, the stronger the likelihood. Signs can include:

  • They become withdrawn from their family;
  • They may have a sudden loss of interest in school or change in behaviour at school. You may see a drop in attendance or academic achievement (although it should be noted that occasionally gang members will deliberately keep up a good attendance record to prevent drawing attention to themselves;
  • Being emotionally ‘switched off’ but with occasional outbursts of frustration / rage;
  • Starting to secretively use a second mobile phone, usually a basic non-smart phone;
  • Starting to use new or unknown slang words;
  • Keeping unexplained amounts of money or possessions;
  • Staying out unusually late without a good reason;
  • Consistently breaking parental or house rules;
  • Sudden change in appearance – dressing in a particular style or ‘uniform’ similar to that of other young people they hang around with, including a particular colour;
  • Dropping out of usual positive activities especially one they have done for some time;
  • Being called a new nickname;
  • Unexplained physical injuries;
  • Despite being injured or unwell, they may refuse to receive medical treatment for injuries;
  • Graffiti style sign on possessions, school books, walls;
  • Constantly talking about another young person who seems to have a lot of influence over them;
  • Breaking off with old friends and hanging around with just one group of people;
  • Hanging out with known or suspected gang members or becoming close to brothers or sisters or adults in the family who are gang members;
  • Starting to adopt certain codes of group behaviour, for example, different ways of talking and hand signs;
  • Going missing;
  • Being found by the police in towns or cities many miles from their home;
  • Expressing aggressive or intimidating views towards other groups of young people, some of whom may have been friends in the past;
  • Seeming to be scared when entering certain areas; and
  • Concerned by the presence of unknown young people in their neighbourhood or community.

An important feature of gang involvement is that, the more heavily a child is involved with a gang, the less likely they are to talk about it. If that is the case, contact us so that we can put you in touch with an ambassador or one of the other partners in the gang prevention programme.

There are links between gang-involvement, criminal exploitation and young people going missing from home or care. Some of the factors which can draw young people involved in gangs away from home or care into going missing are linked to their involvement in carrying out drugs along county lines.

Relationships with gang members, and grooming / exploitation, are significant factors in young women becoming gang-affected. Sexual exploitation is a common feature of young women’s experiences of gangs. While young women have been affected by gangs for years, they can remain a hidden or overlooked group, and are only recently coming to the attention of professionals.

To learn more about what to do if you suspect someone you know is gang involved, read our next FAQ. Or contact us for further advice

You will need to talk to that person at the earliest opportunity.

It can be a daunting conversation but remember they may be scared or unwilling to talk about it.

We advise:

  • It is critical that they know that you care, you want to listen and support them;
  • Gangs are hierarchical and often younger children can find that they are unintentionally coerced into taking part in gang activity and they become victims themselves. As a victim, speaking up early can be a powerful thing;
  • You should try to stay calm no matter how upset or angry you are- this is easier said than done but is also crucial to a successful outcome;
  • That you try to ask questions, rather than making rash accusations;
  • You listen carefully to what they say without interrupting them;
  • Tell them it’s ok to say ‘no’ to requests that make them feel uncomfortable and point out that it can actually build respect and stop continual peer pressure or unwanted attention;
  • You really try to understand the situation from their point of view and why they have joined the gang;
  • Don’t take any explanation personally and try not to become defensive;
  • Ask what you, your friends and wider family can do to help – try to come up with a joint solution together. Young people are more likely to stick to a plan, if they have been involved in shaping it;
  • Carefully point out the risks and consequences of carrying drugs, knives or guns (or even storing or hiding them for others) – see our FAQ below;
  • Try to find alternatives together to being in the gang;

If you have a concern about the safety of a child, please contact your local council’s children’s services (often called a Multi-Agency Safeguarding Hub) or the police if a child is at immediate risk.

If you are looking for general advice or information about safeguarding or child protection, please contact the NSPCC Helpline on 0808 800 5000 or help@nspcc.org.uk.

If the young person will not engage with you, contact us by emailing info@wecanworkitout.co.uk and we will aim to put you in touch with one of our trained Community Volunteers who may be able to help you make the breakthrough you need.

No. Girls and young women involved with gangs can be affected by sexual violence, sexual exploitation, domestic violence, drug and alcohol misuse, school exclusion and going missing from home.

Young women can find themselves becoming controlled by male gang members (to hide drugs or weapons or to hire cars or accommodation for use in gang activity). Sadly, sexual violence is a common feature of the experience of girls involved with gangs; very few assaults by gang members are ever reported.

Gang members often groom girls at school using drugs and alcohol, which can reduce their ability to say no or which can create a dependency. This can result in them being coerced into recruiting other girls through school or their social media networks.

Sisters or other female family members who may not actively be involved with gangs can be targeted and sexually assaulted by rival gangs.

Young men are also at risk of sexual exploitation and assault from gang members.

Young people may think that being in a gang will give them a different, more glamorous lifestyle, but the reality is very different.

Gang membership puts young people at a greater risk of:

  • Getting involved in crime;
  • Dealing drugs or taking drugs;
  • Getting a criminal record and harming their life chances;
  • Being sent to prison;
  • Adverse impact on mental health, and possible long-lasting effects of experiencing trauma through being exploited, abused or attacked, and/or witnessing violence;
  • Becoming a victim of youth violence or even death – in 2018, 135 people were murdered in London, the highest figure since 2008. Many of these were teenagers or in their early twenties who died from gang related stabbing injuries. Sadly, often people who are hurt or killed by guns or knives have their own weapon used against them.

There are no laws banning gangs or gang membership, but there are laws preventing the criminal activity that gangs get involved in. For example:

  • It is illegal to have, carry or trade drugs like cannabis, cocaine and ecstasy;
  • It is illegal to carry or keep a gun without a licence, including fake or replica guns
  • It is illegal to carry a knife in public without a reasonable explanation, which does not include carrying a knife for someone else, for your own protection, to protect someone else – even if you have no intention of using it.

Becoming involved in any of this activity could result in being arrested, going to court and ending up with a criminal record that will affect you for the rest of your life. Having a criminal record can prevent people from getting a job, going to university or college, or even travelling abroad. In some cases, people who handle drugs, guns and knives run the risk of a long prison term.

Violence is a way for gang members to gain recognition and respect by asserting their power and authority in the community. Tragically, a large amount of street crime is carried out by gangs against members of other gangs or the relatives of gang members.

County Lines is a serious issue where criminal gangs set up a drug dealing operation in a place outside their usual operating area. Gangs will move their drug dealing from big cities (e.g. London, Manchester, Liverpool etc.) to smaller towns in order to make more money. The ‘lines’ refer to the phones that are used to sell the drugs through.

In some cases children and young people who are registered as missing are being used in county lines. Gangs exploit the fact that they have run away from home and recruit these vulnerable young people to travel to areas away from their home town to sell drugs for weeks at a time. This can be a form of child trafficking as young people find themselves alone, in a dangerous unsafe environment being exploited to work – selling drugs.

They are likely to exploit children and vulnerable adults to move (and store) the drugs and money and they will often use coercion, intimidation, violence (including sexual violence) and weapons.

If you have a concern about the safety of a child, please contact your local council’s children’s services (often called a Multi-Agency Safeguarding Hub) or the police if a child is at immediate risk. For more information, please contact us by emailing info@wecanworkitout.co.uk and we will aim to advise you further

Please see this guide on women’s safety online which was written by women for women and empowers women to protect themselves online. https://www.vpnmentor.com/blog/the-empowering-internet-safety-guide-for-women/  

A second article – https://comparite.ch/internetsafetywomen/ – also provides advice for young women on the dangers they may face online and how to stay safe particularly when using social media

To read our advice on how parents can take steps to improve the safety of their children who may be listening or producing Drill music, please see our news article – https://resilienceprogramme.co.uk/drill-music-a-means-of-self-expression-or-giving-violence-a-voice/

Most young people (99%) living in England and Wales, do so knife-free. The small minority who carry a knife, often claim to do it to feel safer.

But the opposite is true. Statistics show that carrying a knife for ‘protection’, puts a young person at greater risk of being stabbed themself.

Even if a young person avoids becoming involved in violence, there are other major consequences that can follow from knife carrying. If a young person is stopped by the police and found to be carrying a knife, that could result in a conviction for knife carrying, which can itself carry a sentence of up to four years In prison. Claiming self-defence, is no defence. After four years, a criminal record can follow that young person for the rest of their life affecting employment prospects and ability to travel to certain countries.

Young people should:

  • Avoid peer pressure and ‘friends’ who encourage them to carry a knife.
  • If a young person is worried about becoming a victim of violence, help them become more aware of where you live and how to avoid situations and places where they are more likely to result in conflict or violence.
  • Young people can choose positive alternatives to knife carrying and violence by channelling their time and energy into safer activities in less dangerous situations, among others living knife free. There are plenty of opportunities for young people in our Community Directory.

Street crime is often opportunistic, so making yourself less of a target works helps keep you safe.

  • Try to avoid walking alone after dark, especially in places like parks and side streets. If you do have to, stick to familiar, busy places where is a lot of activity CCTV and good lighting. Avoid poorly lit shortcuts.
  • Try to travel with others and in places you know.
  • Let people know when you are leaving and an eta. Ideally let them know how you plan to reach your destination.
  • Be assertive and act and walk with confidence. This will always make you appear in control and much less vulnerable.
  • Keep your valuables including your mobile phone, headphones, and jewellery, hidden.
  • Using a mobile phone, listening to loud music, all affect your awareness of your surroundings.
  • When walking on the pavement, always face oncoming traffic – it makes it more difficult for thieves on bikes or motorbikes to ride up from behind and snatch your property.
  • Keep an eye on how much you drink and never let your glass or bottle out of your sight. Alcohol and drugs reduce reaction times, awareness, and your personal boundaries, making it harder to assess risks to your safety.

Fortunately, being a victim of violence is still rare. In the unlikely event that you are knowing how to respond to a violent situation can be difficult as it involves split-second decision making and keeping a calm head.  But making yourself aware of the following advice will help you.

  • Trust your gut feeling and if you think a situation is getting worse, avoid getting involved and plan your exit strategy and aim to put as much distance between yourself and the other person. So many young people suffer knife injuries returning to a scene to help a friend or to try and reason with their attackers.
  • If you are able to, call 999 but if you’re unable to call the police during the incident, then call as soon as you can after. Its important that any crime is recorded as it provides valuable information for the police and may help prevent the issue happening to someone else.
  • Never forget that your life and personal safety is the most important thing. Your belongings can be replaced.

If you find someone who has been injured by a knife, always ring 999 straight away. Don’t delay as every second counts.

For advice about emergency first aid which could save someone’s life, watch this helpful video by lead nurse for Violence Reduction at The Royal London Hospital, Michael Carver. The video explains what happens when someone is stabbed and what you need to do to help save them. It also provides some insight on the kind of environment young people can experience when they’re admitted to A&E with a knife injury.

Watch the clip here – https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/av/uk-england-london-51635931/knife-crime-how-to-save-a-stabbing-victim

Bullying online is increasingly common and causes significant anxiety and distress for young people who are on the receiving end. Social media channels have been adapted by gangs and criminal groups as a way of grooming and recruiting new members and as a control tactic.

Bullying and abuse can take place by email, text message, social networking, online chat or even by defamatory websites.

If a friend tells you they are being bullied, listen sympathetically. Seeking help is the right thing to do.

Look at ways of blocking the messages.

Victims of online bullying should not reply to any bullying messages, but it is important to keep a record of every message.

Online stalking or harassment is a criminal offence, and you should consider reporting the issue to the local police. The Police (or other investigating organisations, see below) will need to see copies of the messages you have been receiving.

Further information to help keep you, your friends or family safe online can be found at:

The following organisations can also help investigate serious or persistent inappropriate online behaviour:

  • The Internet Watch Foundation – can help investigate illegal online content (https://www.iwf.org.uk)
  • NSPCC Child Protection Helpline – the NSPCC Freephone (0808 800 5000) service can offer confidential, free, support and for victims of online bullying and harassment.
  • ChildLine – also operate a free, confidential, 24-hour helpline for children and young people affected by this problem.
  • The Child Exploitation and Online Protection Advice service – provides internet safety advice and help as well as a way of reporting abusive online content (https://www.ceop.police.uk/safety-centre)

Embrace (https://embracecvoc.org.uk) are a charity supporting children, young people and families who are victims of serious crime. Embrace help victims and their families cope with what has happened, support their recovery and provide services that enable them to put events behind them, to move on and fulfil their potential.

Victim Support has dedicated advice and support networks for young people and their families – see, https://www.victimsupport.org.uk/help-and-support/young-victims-crime. Their youth programme, You & Co, helps children and young people affected by crime.

As a victim of crime, you are entitled to certain information and support from criminal justice agencies such as the police and the courts. The Victims’ Code explains what you can expect from the moment you report a crime to what happens at and after a trial. To read the Victims Code – https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/746330/victims-of-crime-leaflet-2018.pdf

Nothing is more nerve-wracking to a parent than when a child goes missing. Of the thousands of missing children reported annually, fortunately, the majority of missing person cases are resolved within hours. But gangs and criminal networks do groom and exploit children as part of their drug markets and so parents must take any missing child or young person seriously. We’ve prepared a guide on what you should do when you’ve lost a child.

Call the Police immediately

If you cannot locate your child and it is out of character for them to not be in touch with you or anyone else, you should immediately report your child missing to the police by calling 101 or 999 (if you are worried that they are in immediate danger). You do not need to wait 24 hours to report your child as missing.  Do not spend time looking for the child until you have alerted the police.  If you would prefer to make the report in person, you can find details of your local police station here – https://www.police.uk.

The police will provide you with an incident number and an officer will be sent out to your home address to take a missing persons report. Record the Officer’s name, collar number and ask for the details of who will be dealing with the matter.

Once you have reported your child missing to the police, they will make an assessment of the level of risk to them. Your child’s age and circumstances of their disappearance (e.g. whether or not they have been reported missing before) will dictate the level of investigation they undertake. This may include searching the areas where your child was last seen, reviewing CCTV footage, making attempts to contact them by phone or computer, checking local hospital admissions, checking associates’ addresses known to have been with previously.

It is sensible to reach an agreement with the police as to what you will do whilst they are conducting a search, to avoid duplication and how often you expect to hear from the Police and if you do not, how frequently you will contact them for an update.

Get ready to share your child’s information.

In the moment when you cannot find your child, it’s common to forget the basic information the police and safeguarding agencies may need. Be prepared to provide as much key information as you can, including the following:

  • Child’s full name.
  • Child’s weight/ height.
  • Child’s age and date of birth
  • Clothes the child was last seen wearing.
  • Identifying features, like glasses or a birthmark
  • Names and contact information of the child’s friends or close acquaintances.
  • Frequently visited places where they are known to hangout.
  • Any health issues the child may have.
  • Any other possibly relevant details about the time or place the child went missing.
  • Try to find several recent photographs that clearly display distinguishing characteristics.

Alternatively, you can use this template prepared by charity PACE (Parents Against Child Exploitation) to help you – http://paceuk.info/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/Missing-event-template-Pace.docx.

Look in your immediate area.

Call, text, and message your child via mobile, social media or apps. Stay calm, show them you’re concerned and just want them home safe. If your child has social media accounts, they may have left some digital clues, but rather than digging through electronic records yourself, ask police to explore messaging histories and social sites.

Ask friends or family if anyone knows where they are.

Keep your phone close to you in case they contact you and check any other ways they may get a message to you.

Make sure someone stays at the house in case they come back.

If your child is found or comes home

Parents and carers must inform the police when their child returns home, as soon as possible. If you have any concerns that a crime has been committed, report it at the same time. The Police understand that many young people are coerced or exploited by others and they will see your child as a victim of exploitation rather than a criminal. It is likely that the Police will want to ask them questions about their experience and offer them support rather than arresting or detaining them. 

Remain calm, express relief and tell your child that you’re happy to have them home.  Calmly talk to your child about where they have been and the reasons they went missing. Let them know that you were worried and care about them and you want to work through any problems together. Try and create an environment where they feel listened to and supported. Make a note of any information they tell you for the police.

Get medical attention if they need it.

Preventative measures

Though kidnapping and abduction cases are rare, taking some preventive step will help you handle any situation.

Familiarise your family with the steps to take in the event that your child goes missing. Share this blog with them.

To minimize the risk of disappearance, discuss sharing locations with your children on their mobile phones e.g., use the ‘Find My’ App on iPhone  or Google’s Trusted Contacts app on Android phones

You can share your location between an iPhone and Android device by using Google Maps “Share your location” feature. (See – https://www.blog.google/products/maps/trusted-contacts-now-ios). Google Maps lets you send your exact location in a text message, which can be sent between iPhones and Android devices.

For iPhone – https://support.apple.com/en-gb/guide/icloud/mm1012797a39/icloud

For Android – https://www.blog.google/products/maps/let-your-loved-ones-know-youre-safe-our-new-personal-safety-app.

Ensure your children have an ‘in case of emergency’ (ICE) telephone number for you readily set up in their phone contacts so they can contact you at a moments notice.

If you are worried your child may be being exploited

To help local safeguarding teams or the Police, make a note of:

  • Any times your child goes missing.
  • Names, nicknames, ages and descriptions about people who concern you.
  • Car registrations, make, model, colour that may have been seen dropping off or collecting your child.
  • Phone numbers, profiles, usernames that your child is being contacted by on phones, apps, social media or games consoles.
  • Places your child talks about going to.

Dates and times when the things above may be happening.

Contact the safeguarding team at your local Council to discuss any concerns. You can find their details online.